You must know that in Italy the bar is not a place where you go to drink alcoholics in the evening but a place where you have breakfast or a coffee during the day, let’s say cafés or coffee shops… In the post LESSON #4 – [VOCABULARY] BAR we learned what you can order at these “bars” …
“Il caffè” is a generic name for the beverage prepared from roasted coffee beans but at the bar you usually have to specify if you want short, long, decaf and so on.
“L’espresso” is a short and concentrated coffee, usually served in a little cup, often not full, with a foam on the top.
“Il cappuccino” a coffee (usually the Expresso) with streamed milk foam. The cup is bigger than the previous one and usually full. In some bars you can ask for a cinnamon or chocolate powder on the top.
“Il caffelatte” in Italy is usually a coffee with liquid milk. That’s the difference between “il cappuccino” and “il caffelatte” or “il caffè latte” (you can use both), the first one is with foam of milk, the second one with liquid milk which is added into the coffee.
Don’t use the English name “Latte” in Italy because it has a different meaning, they will prepare you only the shaked milk.